Basic Korean vocbulary & Particles 2019

Most Basic Korean Particles

은/는 – Topic particles
이/가 – Subject Particles
을/를 – Object particles
에/에서 – In, at
에 – To 에서 – From
에서 – From (Place)부터 – From (Time)까지 – To/till (Place
에게/한테 – To (someone)에게서/한테서 – From (someone)
와/과/하고/랑 – And (connect two things)
나/(이)나 – Either/Or
로/ (으)로 – to/towards(direction)with (tool/method)
의 – of/’s (belongs to)
도 – also/too
Most Basic Korean Verb Endings

입니다, 이에요/예요 – Is/am/are
있다 – To have, To exist and 없다 – Not to have, To not exist
V + 아요/어요 or ㅂ니다/습니다 – Present tense verb ending
V + 았어요/었어요 – Past Tense Verb Ending
V + 겠어요 and V + (으)ㄹ 거예요 – Future Tense Ending
V + 지 않아요/ 않았어요/않을 거예요 – Negative Verb Endings (Don’t, Didn’t, Won’t)
V + 지 못 해요/ 했어요/할 거예요 – Negative Verb Endings (Can’t, Couldn’t, Won’t be able to)
안/못 + Verb안 + V + Ending = Do Not; 못 + V + Ending = Cannot
V + 죠/지요 – Isn’t it? (used for confirmation)– 잖아요 – As you know/You know that …..
V + 고 있다 – V + ing
V + 고 싶다 – Want to V
V+ (으)세요/십시오 – Please do.. / Making a Request
V + 아/어 보다 – To try doing …
V + 아/어 주다 – To do .. for someone
Adj+아/어지다 – To become/get …
-(으)ㄹ 수 있다/없다 – Can/Can’t
-(으)ㄹ까요? – Shall we ..?
-(으)ㅂ시다 – Let’s do ..
V + 게 됐어요 – Happened to do
V + 아야/어야 해요 and V + 아야/어야 돼요have to/ need to/ must Do ..
-아도/어도 돼요 (It’s ok to …)(Asking for/granting permission)-(으)면 돼요 (You just have to…), You can just do..(으)려고 하다 Intend/Plan to do something(으)기로 했어요 – Decided to do..
Modifiers – V + (으)ㄴ – Past; V + 는 – Present; V + (으)ㄹ – future; Adj. + (으)ㄴ
V/Adj + Modifier + 것 같아요- It seems like, looks like
-라고/다고/자고/냐고 하다– Indirect Speech
Most Basic Korean Connectors

V + 고 + V – V + and + Verb
V + 지만 – I do V But
N 보다 – Than N
V + 아서/어서 – And (Sequence), So (Reason)
N + 때문에 and V + 기 때문에 – Because, So (Used to express reason)
V + (으)니까 – Because, So (Used to express reason but mainly with commands, request or proposals)
Adj + (으)ㄴ데 and V + 는데 – but…, Used to express background information
V + (으)러 – in order to do .., For doing … (Used with verbs come/go)
V + (으)려고 + Verb – To do … in order to do .. (Can be used with any verb)
N + 때 and V – (으)ㄹ 때 – At the time of …, When..
Time + 동안 – During .., For the duration of ..
V + (으)면 – If, When
V + 았/었으면 좋겠다 – I hope/wish/desire
V+ (으)면서 – While doing ..
V + 기 전에 – Before doing …
V + (으)ㄴ 후에 – After doing ..
N + 에 대해서/대해 + Verb and N + 에 대한 + Noun – About something
N + 을/를 위해서/위해 and V + 기 위해서/위해 – In order to do, For the sake of
그리고 – and
그래서 – So
그러면 – Then, In that case
그러니까 – That’s why, For that reason
그러나, 그런데, 그렇지만, 하지만 – But
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Basic Korean vocbulary & Particles 2019

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